Previous analyses of glycolytic metabolites in Artemia embryos indicate that an acute inhibition of glucose phosphorylation occurs during pHi-mediated metabolic arrest under anoxia. We describe here kinetic features of hexokinase purified from brine shrimp embryos in an attempt to explain the molecular basis for this inhibition. At saturating concentrations of cosubstrate, ADP is an uncompetitive inhibitor toward glucose and a partial noncompetitive inhibitor toward ATP (Kis = 0.86 mM, Kii = 1.0 mM, Kid = 1.9 mM). With cosubstrates at subsaturating concentrations, the uncompetitive inhibition versus glucose becomes noncompetitive, while inhibition versus ATP remains partial noncompetitive. The partial noncompetitive inhibition of ADP versus ATP is characterized by a hyperbolic intercept replot. These product inhibition patterns are consistent with a random mechanism of enzyme action that follows the preferred order of glucose binding first and glucose-6-P dissociating last. We propose that inhibition by glucose-6-P (Kis = 65 microM) occurs primarily by competing with ATP at the active site, resulting in the formation of the dead-end complex, enzyme-glucose-glucose-6-P. Versus glucose, inhibition by glucose-6-P is uncompetitive at pH 8.0 and noncompetitive at pH 6.8. Over a physiologically relevant pH range of 8.0 to 6.8 alterations in Km and Ki values do not account for the reduction in glucose phosphorylation, and no evidence suggests that Artemia hexokinase activity is modulated by reversible binding to intracellular structures. Total aluminum in the embryos is 4.01 +/- 0.36 micrograms/g dry weight, or, based upon tissue hydration, 72 microM. This concentration of aluminum dramatically reduces enzyme activity at pH values less than 7.2, even in the presence of physiological metal ion chelators (citrate, phosphate). When pH, aluminum, citrate, phosphate, substrates, and products were maintained at cellular levels measured under anoxia, we can account for a 90% inhibition of hexokinase relative to activity under control (aerobic) conditions.
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rees, B.B., Ropson, I.J., and Hand, S.C. 1989. Kinetic properties of hexokinase under near-physiological conditions: relation to metabolic arrest in Artemia embryos during anoxia. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264 (26): 15410-15417.