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Monte Carlo simulations using a three-dimensional lattice model studied the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) indirect exchange interaction of doped magnetic Co ions in ZnO films. The results of the calculations show that the RKKY interaction in Co-doped ZnO is long ranged and its magnitude is proportional to R−1 (inverse of the distance R from a central Co2+ ion). The sign oscillates with a frequency that depends on the concentration of the carrier. The long-distance sum of the RKKY indirect exchange energies is positive indicating that these materials are ferromagnetic, in direct correlation with previously reported results

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Applied Physics Letters

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Chemistry Commons