A photopolarimeter for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light. The light beam, the state of polarization of which is to be determined, strikes, at oblique angles of incidence, three photodetector surfaces in succession, each of which is partially specularly reflecting and each of which generates an electrical signal proportional to the fraction of the radiation it absorbs. A fourth photodetector is substantially totally light absorbtive and detects the remainder of the light. The four outputs thus developed form a 4x1 signal vector I which is linearly related, I=A S, to the input Stokes vector S. Consequently, S is obtained by S=A-1 I. The 4x4 instrument matrix A must be nonsingular, which requires that the planes of incidence for the first three detector surfaces are all different. For a given arangement of four detectors, A can be either computed or determined by calibration.
Azzam, Rasheed M.A., "Photodetector Arrangement for Measuring the State of Polarization of" (1987). University of New Orleans Patents. Paper 2.