Date of Award

Fall 12-18-2015

Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program




Major Professor

Rioux, Anne Boyd

Second Advisor

Piano, Doreen

Third Advisor

Hazlett, John


Nearly all discussions of Hemingway and his work touch on the theme of masculinity, a recurrent theme in all of his works. Examinations of Hemingway and his relationship to masculinity have almost unanimously treated the author as a misogynist and a champion of violent masculinity. However, since the posthumous publication of The Garden of Eden in 1986, there has been much discussion of Hemingway’s uncharacteristic use of androgynous characters in the novel. Critics have taken this as a clue that Hemingway possessed a complex attitude regarding gender fluidity, but have failed to examine the constructions of gender and identity in his earlier fiction. By examining two of his earliest works, In Our Time (1925) and The Sun Also Rises (1926), I argue that Hemingway’s complex ideas about gender performance have been hidden just beneath the surface all along.


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