Date of Award

Fall 12-2017

Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program

Biological Sciences


Biological Sciences

Major Professor

Dr. Penz

Second Advisor

Dr. DeVries

Third Advisor

Dr. Atallah


Papilio dardanus displays female-limited polymorphic mimicry of multiple model species. Butterfly wing shape is species-specific and can influence mimetic signaling, but has not been characterized in this species. We used elliptical fourier analysis to investigate whether mimetic P. dardanus female forms have converged on the wing shape of their respective models. Although both models and mimics varied in forewing and hind wing shape, we found no evidence of forewing shape convergence between them. Overall, forewings did not differ in shape between sexes in P. dardanus, nor in four non-mimetic Papilio used for comparison. Similarly, there were no hind wing differences between the sexes in the four non-mimetic Papilio. However, P. dardanus hind wings varied significantly between mimetic females and non-mimetic individuals suggesting that, in addition to wing color pattern, the evolution of mimicry has led to changes in hind wing shape in P. dardanus.


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