Date of Award

Fall 12-20-2018

Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program

Engineering and Applied Science


Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Dr. Ittiphong Leevongwat

Second Advisor

Dr. Parviz Rastgoufard

Third Advisor

Dr. Linxiong Li

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Leszek Malkinski

Fifth Advisor

Dr. Ebrahim Amiri


Current differential protection principle is superior in terms of sensitivity and speed of operation in comparison with other protection principle used in power systems. From the last five decades, various current differential protection schemes are widely used to protect busbars, transformers, and short-transmission lines. The deployment of high capacity microwave and optical fiber technologies redefined

the line protection systems by facilitating the use of current differential protection schemes for long transmission lines. The common application issue of these schemes is mis-operation due to current transformer (CT) saturation during close-in external faults. Moreover, transformer differential protection schemes face mis-trip due to inrush current during energization. The techniques presented in the literature to address those issues, de-sensitize protection function and increase the time of operation. A comprehensive fault discrimination algorithm and an inrush current detection algorithm are highly demanded for current differential protection schemes. The purpose of this dissertation is to optimize the performance of differential schemes applied to protect busbar, transformer and line. This research derives the mathematical model of saturated secondary current of CT and introduces the concept of Partial Operating Current (POC). Based on these mathematical developments, the characteristics of POC are identified for all three types of differential zones like busbar, transformer and line protection. A new inrush current blocking algorithm is developed for transformer differential protection. A new time-domain CT saturation detection algorithm is also proposed. Based on these new developments, three separate differential schemes are designed for busbar, transformer, and line protection, respectively. The proposed schemes provide complete immunity against the mis-operations due to CT saturation during close-in external faults and transformer inrush current without sacrificing the sensitivity for internal faults. The speed of operation is also improved. The model for each scheme is built in Matlab platform and the performance is validated using the test system simulated in Electro-Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for all possible fault scenarios. Documented results show the improved performance of the proposed schemes when compared to traditional differential schemes in terms of reliability, sensitivity, selectivity, and speed


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Available for download on Wednesday, December 20, 2023