Date of Award

Summer 8-2020

Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program




Major Professor

Dr. Sarah R. Black


Co-occurrence of risk for impoverished families is common, but less is known about how compounded risk influences parenting behavior. Mothers (n = 167) and their two-year-old children were visited at home and engaged in a game aimed to elicit everyday parenting behavior. Mothers endorsed experience of sociodemographic and psychosocial risks. Two unique cumulative risk indices were created from these variables. Regression analyses assessed the relation between the risk indices and positive and negative parenting behavior. Latent class analysis examines classes of risk experience on the same indicators. Results show psychosocial risk experience is associated with both parenting factors, while sociodemographic risk experience was only associated with negative parenting. Similarly, latent class analysis suggested a four-class model, in which positive parenting differed between classes marked by sociodemographic, but not psychosocial, risk. Such comparisons show that all risk is not the same, and suggestions for intervention efforts and future studies are given.


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