Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program

Mechanical Engineering


Mechanical Engineering

Major Professor

Smith, Damon

Second Advisor

Schilling, Paul

Third Advisor

Herrington, Paul

Fourth Advisor

Wiley, John


Anatomical phantoms used in biomedical education and training benefit greatly from Fused filament fabrication’s (FFF) ability to rapidly produce complex and unique models. Current materials and methods used in FFF have limited ability to accurately produce phantoms that can mimic the radiological properties of multiple biological tissues. This research demonstrates that the CT contrast of FFF produced models can be modified by varying the concentration of bismuth oxide in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filaments and a tunable CT contrast that mimics the CT contrast ranging from fatty tissue to cortical bone using a single composite filament without introducing artificial image artifacts is achieved by modifying the deposited filament structure using a rectilinear infill pattern with alternating solid layers. In addition, a method is demonstrated to produce a lumbar spine phantom with the infill modified to accurately mimic the CT contrast for the trabecular and cortical bone volumes of the model.


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