Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program




Major Professor

Black, Sarah

Second Advisor

Scalco, Matthew

Third Advisor

Kotelnikova, Yuliya


While robust literature exists on the association between positive and negative parenting with child outcomes, less is known about the nature of parenting’s consistency in this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between valence and consistency of parenting, and to determine whether consistency is associated with child adjustment independent of valence. Data were collected from 167 mothers and their toddler-aged child. Participation involved two time points, 1 year apart. At each time point, mothers’ observational data were obtained via videotape of designed interactions between mother and toddler, as well as survey data from mothers. Bivariate correlations and multiple regressions were used to examine 1) parenting’s consistency over time, and 2) whether the direction of inconsistency moderated the relationship between inconsistency on child behavior problems. Parenting at Time 1 predicted Time 2 for both valences. Additionally, increases in negative parenting factor scores predicted concurrent increases in children’s externalizing.


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