We extend ellipsometry to the direct measurement of small perturbations of the Jones matrix of any linear nondepolarizing optical sample (system) subjected to a modulating stimulus such as temperature, stress, or electric or magnetic field. The methodology of this technique, to be called Modulated Generalized Ellipsometry (MGE), is presented. First an ellipsometer with arbitrary polarizing and analyzing optics is assumed, and subsequently the discussion is specialized to a conventional ellipsometer having either the polarizer-sample-analyzer (PSA) or the polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer (PCSA) arrangement. MGE provides the tool for the systematic study of thermo-optical, piezo-optical, electro-optical, magneto-optical, and other allied effects for both isotropic and anisotropic materials that may be examined in either transmission or reflection. MGE is also applicable to (1) modulation spectroscopy of anisotropic media, (2) the study of electrochemical reactions on optically anisotropic electrodes, and (3) the extension of AIDER (angle-of-incidence-derivative ellipsometry and reflectometry) to the determination of the optical properties of anisotropic film-substrate systems.
Journal of the Optical Society of America (1917-1983)
R. M. A. Azzam, "Modulated generalized ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 520-524 (1976)