This paper presents a novel broadband modulation method for digital underwater communications: Chirp Slope Keying (CSK). In its simplest form, the binary information modulates the slope of a linear chirp, with up-chirps representing ones and down-chirps representing zeros. Performance evaluation in the form of probability of error vs. SNR show that the system performs as expected for AWGN environments and very well for more realistic models for underwater acoustical communications, such as the Raylegih channel with Doppler, delays, phase offset, and multipath.
Kaminsky, E. and L. Simanjuntak, "Chirp Slope Keying for Underwater Communications," in Proc. SPIE Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C31) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense IV Conf., Orlando, FL, 28 March-1 April, 2005, Vol. 5778, pp. 894-905. doi: 10.1117/12.605426