Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name


Degree Program

Counselor Education


Educational Leadership, Counseling, and Foundations

Major Professor

Dufrene, Roxane L.

Second Advisor

Watson, Zarus E.P.

Third Advisor

Paradise, Louis V.

Fourth Advisor

Herlihy, Barbara


This study explored the concept of student remediation in counseling graduate programs by examining the behavioral indicators associated with student remediation, the terminology used to discuss student remediation, and remedial interventions and their effectiveness. Members of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) were electronically surveyed using a researcher-designed instrument, the Counseling Graduate Student Remediation Questionnaire. A total of 607 individuals participated in the study for a response rate of 28.8%. The results of this study indicated that the overall five behavioral indicators considered by participants as needing remediation were the following: receptivity to feedback; basic counseling skills; boundaries with clients, supervisors, and/or colleagues; openness to self-examination; and advanced counseling skills. Five factors were identified within the behavioral indicators based on which can be remediated: Factor I, Personal Competencies; Factor II, Professionalism; Factor III, Personal Challenges; Factor IV, Honesty; and Factor V, Clinical Competencies. Significant group differences were found between counselor educators' and doctoral students' perceptions of what needs remediation with counseling graduate students, as well as what can be remediated with students. Significant group differences also were present between administrative faculty and non-administrative faculty on perceptions of what needs remediation with students. The overall three most preferred terms by participants used to discuss students in remediation included: challenging, problems with professional competence, and problematic. For remedial interventions, participants perceived that increased supervision was often effective as an intervention and that referring or recommending to personal counseling was occasionally effective. The results of this study seemed indicative of a broadening perspective regarding the topic of remediation, with perceptions shifting toward a positive framework rather than the more pejorative historical approaches. Overall, the conclusion from this study was that student remediation is currently developing within the field as a distinct concept with many specific associated behavioral indicators, terminology, and interventions.


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